第一讲:禅修入门(2018.03.02)


授課上師:第十七世法王噶瑪巴
时间:2018年3月2日20:00至20:30 CET
地点:美国网络直播
来源:https://www.youtube.com/KarmapafoundationEurope
中译英:正燃

以下为法王噶玛巴开示英译的全文

Thanks to European Karmapa Foundation we started this live webcasting today. I will therefore speak for 30 minutes live. I think it will be good to do these live teachings also in the future, so that many people can be reached around the globe.
感谢欧洲噶玛巴基金会的安排,今天我们可以开始网络在线的教学。因此,接下来我将会在这里进行30分钟的讲话。 我认为在未来这样的在线教学是很好的,这样一来全球各地的很多人都可以收听到。

Today I will speak about mindfulness,and in the future we can gradually continue to other subjects.
这次我要讲的是有关于「正念」的主题,在日后,我们可以渐渐地开始其他的话题。

First of all, in speaking of mindfulness and alertness we have to ask, what are they? Then the next question is, how are they cultivated. And then, finally, as a practical matter, how to increase them.
首先,谈论「正念」和「觉知」 时,我们得要问问,什么是正念和觉知? 接着的问题是,如何培养正念和觉知? 然后最后的问题是,如何通过实际的修持来提升。

So you could say in a sense that I am going to look at mindfulness and alertness from the standpoint of view, meditation and conduct. First, as for the view, or context, mindfulness and alertness, circumspection - usually people just say "mindfulness" - is often spoken of nowadays. If we look it up on Google, we find out that there is more and more talk of mindfulness and less and less of Buddhism per se.
因此,从某种程度上,你可能会想到说,我将会着眼于禅修和行为的立场来了解正念和觉知。 就某种见地或是目前的情境来看,在正念、觉知、谨慎中——通常人们只是说“正念”,而这也是当今被津津乐道的一个词。 如果我们在谷歌中搜索,我们会看到涉及到正念的词条越来越多,相反有关佛教的词条越来越少。

The practice of mindfulness and alertness is very important for Buddhists. We could even say the cultivation of mindfulness and alertness includes all forms of Buddhist meditation practice.
对佛教徒来说,正念和觉知的练习是非常重要的。 我们甚至可以说,关于「正念」和「觉知」的修持含摄了佛教禅修修行的所有法门。

Nowadays everyone is in a terrible hurry. So we need, especially now, to learn to slow down, relax and gain some self-recognition.
现今每个人都身处一种可怕的忙碌状态。 因此,尤其在当今的社会,我们需要学习放慢、放松,从而建立一定的自我认知。

Because it is especially hard for us to do these things nowadays. On the other hand, regardless of what our lives may be, we all have constant opportunities for the cultivation of mindfulness and alertness.
虽然,对我们来说现今做这种练习是特别困难的。 而另一方面,无论我们的生活是怎样,我们都一直有机会培养正念和觉知。

The environment in which these are cultivated does not in a sense matter: The point is to relax your mind, to bring your mind under your own control. You can cultivate mindfulness in your automobile on the way to work, it will deepen your feelings and you will get more out of what you are dong.
修持所在的环境并不是一个实质性的问题:重点是要放松你的心,把心带入到自我觉照之中。 你可以在准备用手机工作时来练习正念,这样将会深化你的感知,并且更够更好的完成手中的事物。

While working, you can cultivate lucid awareness, by recognizing what you are doing each moment. When driving to work, you can say, "I am in my car, going to work". While you’re working, you think, "I am doing this and this work", and so on. This type of awareness will deepen your sensations, deepen your feelings, and that already is mindfulness and alertness.
工作时,通过观照当下每一刻自己所作的事情,你可以培养清明的觉察力。 当你开着车去上班,你可以说:我正开开车去工作。 当你正在工作时,你可以想到说:“我正在做这个工作、正在做那件事情。” 等等。 这种觉察的方法可以强化你的感知力,加深你的感觉,如此一来这就已经是正念和觉知。

When whatever we do is embraced with mindfulness and alertness, we gain great clarity of awareness. In order to calm down our minds and relax, we need to be able to be undisturbed by external pressure- work or whatever - and our worries.
不论做什么,如果我们都能保有正念和觉知,那么我们就能拥有极度清明的觉察力。 为了让心放松和平静,我们就要确保自己,不会因外在的压力——比如工作或任何其他让你分心的事物而打扰和担忧。

We need to develop some kind of separation from external conditions in order to cultivate mindfulness. In order to do this, we need to understand the view and the outlook of mindfulness, but then we need to actually cultivate it in meditation practice.
要培养正念,我们就要在某种程度上出离于外部的情境。 因此,我们就需要了解正念的见地,并了知正念的益处。然后,就要在禅修中真正的培养它。

Meditation starts with a cultivation of tranquility. And about this type of meditation in particular, we have a saying:“Meditation is not meditation, it is familiarisation.” Which means that the state of tranquility is a state in which your mind has become familiar with, used to and comfortable with a state of peace.
禅修始於一种宁静的状态。 关于这类禅修,我们还有种特别的说法:“禅修就是无所修。无所修的禅修就是精通禅修。” 这里也就是说,这种宁静的状态是一种你已经非常熟悉的状态,是你习以为常的,并且舒服、平和的状态。

There are many methods by which we can stabilize tranquility. But first, in order to cultivate mindfulness, we need to relax our mind. We can therefore prepare for meditation by doing whatever soothes and relaxes our mind, sometimes listening to music, and so on.
有很多方法可以让我们保任在宁静之中。 但首先,为了培养正念,就需要放松我们的心。 因此,我们可以借助任何所缘,有时候可以是听听音乐等等,以禅修让我们的心放松放慢下来。

In short, we want to free our mind from as much stress as possible. However, we do need to make a distinction between the way many people now seek to avoid or remove stress, and a practice of meditation.
简单来说,我们都想要让心自由,尽可能的摆脱压力。 然而,我们也确实需要在这之间有个区分。现在很多人都在寻求避免压力或减压的方法,于是就开始禅修的练习。

Many people seem to use external material means to reduce their stress. But meditation is different from that, because it is internal. It does not depend on externals, but relies upon the power of our own mind.
看上去很多人还借用外在的物理方法来减轻他们的压力。 但禅修是不是这样的,因为禅修是向内的活动。 它不需要依赖外在,靠的是我们自己的意念力。

禅修心法之一 「止的禅修」

The most common basic meditation technique is to rest your mind on your breathing. Be simply aware of the breath going out and coming in. In that practice, your awareness follows with breathing. As you breathe out, the awareness goes out with the breath. As you breathe in, your awareness comes in with the in breath. In this practice there is no need to alter or change how you breathe. Simply breathe as you usually do.
最基本普遍的禅修心法是将意念安住在自己的呼吸中。 只是简单的觉察呼吸的出和入。 在这个练习中,你的觉察跟随着呼吸。 当呼吸呼出,觉察随着呼吸向外流动, 当呼吸呼入,觉察跟随呼吸向内回来。 在这个练习中,你不需要调息。 平常怎么呼吸的,就怎么呼吸。

The amount of time you spend at this does not matter. You simply practice this as long as you can. But if you become uncomfortable or tired, relax. And don’t follow the breath for a while. And then return to the breath once you are again relaxed.
呼吸的次数也是不重要的。 你只是尽可能的做这个简单的练习。 但当你变得不舒服,或感觉疲惫了,那么就停下来,放松一会儿。 当你感到完全放松了,然后再开始继续觉察呼吸。

The point is to develop a state of peace and calm in your mind. If I may use the analogy of a body of water, it is like causing a vast lake to become free from waves. it is important to practice this tranquility mediation at least once a day. The time at which it is practiced doesn’t matter. But I think in the early morning, before leaving for work, there is a good time to practice. Alternatively, you can also practice this meditation once you have reached your work place, before beginning your daily tasks, if that is possible. But if not, the best choice is in the morning before you leave for work.
这里的重点是让心安住于平和与沉静之中。 如果可以把身体比做水的话,那么这个练习就如同,观看着一片宽广湖面中的波纹会慢慢平缓一样。 每天至少一次进行「宁静禅修」的修持是很重要的,修持的时间到不是重点。 但我认为在清晨起身离开住所去工作的时间,是一个很好的修持时段。 当然,你也可以在抵达工作地点后,开始日常的工作前,进行这个禅修的练习,如果这样可以的话。 如果不行,那么最好的选择就是在早上离开去工作前。

And it has to be done as daily practice, because your mind needs to get used to being in a state of peace. In this case, we are using the breath, the in breath and out breath, as a support for the cultivation of mindfulness and alertness.
这必须作为一项日常的修持,因为心需要在一种平和的状态中工作。 因此,我们通过觉察呼吸的呼入和呼出,以此来培养正念和觉知的能力。

But once these have been developed, we should then apply them to other activities, the post-mediation actions, like eating, walking, and eventually in everything we do. In this, it is familiarity that is of the greatest importance. Simply practicing this once, or one or two hours, is not going to do very much.
一旦这种能力发展出来,我们就应该将其运用在其他的活动中,比如座下的动中禅修,在吃饭,走路,以及任何当下在做的事情中运用禅修的方法保有这种觉知。 如此练习所培养的熟悉感是极为重要的。 每天只是简单的做这个练习一次,或是一到两个小时,而不是做的太多。

On the other hand, if we gain familiarity with this meditation practice, our mind will, I believe, gain the ability to with stand external stimuli and also our internal emotions and remain in a state of peace.
另一方面,如果我们通过这个禅修的修持而变得娴熟,那么我相信,我们就能保任在平和的状态中,具有免疫外缘的和内在情绪干扰的能力了。

We use the breath as a focus for developing mindfulness and alertness, but of course the breath does not require our attention. We do not need to think about the breathing in order to breath, and therefore, when we are following the breath, we are doing so, basically, in a non-conceptual way. We are simply aware of the breathing as we use it as a focus for our mindfulness, and no particular thought is required.
我们通过把注意力放在呼吸上来发展正念和觉知力,当然了,呼吸是不需要我们注意的。 我们不需要为了呼吸而刻意的去想它,所以,当我们让觉察跟随呼吸时,我们这么做其实是在一种无意识的状态中进行的。 我们只是觉察着呼吸,以此作为我们培养正念的方法,无需有为的思维。

禅修心法之二 「观的禅修」

But there is another type of Buddhist meditation, which is called analytic meditation. And this means actively thinking about something, as a form of meditation practice.
然而,佛教中还有一种禅修,称作「观的禅修」。 这种方法是有意的去思维一些事情,以此作为禅修的练习。

An excellent first topic for this is impermanence, which is something that we all need to think about. Impermanence is constant change. Changes in the world, changes in beings, changes in ourselves, our bodies and minds. Each change is in fact a new opportunity. And we need to come into recognize each opportunity as it presents itself. This in turn requires us to be aware of change or impermanence. We can call it change or we can call it things always being new. The point is we constantly gain new opportunities, which means we are also always gaining new abilities. The practice is to analyse this, to learn to identify change and impermanence. Now this requires the same repeated familiarisation as the previous practice of tranquility.
关于这个练习,第一个极为重要的思维课题就是「无常」,这也是我们所有人都必须要思维的。 「无常」就是持续的变化。世界在改变,万物在改变,我们自己也在改变,我们的身体和心绪都在改变。 如同无常的如其所是,我们需要在无常中辨认出每个机遇。 这就需要我们对改变或无常有所觉察。 我们可以将其称作是变化,也可以看作是事物一直是新的。 重点是,我们可以持续的拥有新的机遇,这也就意味着,我们总是有着全新的能力。 这个观的修持,就是这样去解析,去学习和定义改变和无常。 同样,就像前面的「宁静禅修」一样,这个练习也需要反复做直到你变得熟悉。

如何做到最好?

In this way, there are two types of meditation. Analytical meditation. which is all thinking, and resting meditation, in which we don’t think, but rest the mind.
总的来说,有两种禅修。 一种是思维的「观的禅修」;还有一种就是「止的禅修」,这类的禅修我们不需要思维观想,只是让心安住。

It is best to alternate these two types of practice. If we only practice resting meditation. we will not be able to increase our wisdom, although resting meditation will help us gain peace of mind. In order to increase our wisdom, we also need analytical meditation.
交替练习这两种禅修是最好的。 如果我们只是修止的禅修,智慧便不能增长,尽管止的禅修能够帮我们保持内心平和。 为了开启增长我们的智慧,我们同时也需要观的禅修。

However, the analysis that we cultivate in Buddhist analytical meditation is different from the sort of thinking or analysis that most of us engage in nowadays, where we seek to increase our wisdom by looking outward. In Buddhist meditation practice, in both analytical meditation and placement meditation, we are looking inward.
然而,佛教中「观的禅修」所指的分析和思维能力的培养,和当今我们大多数人所认为的那种思维分析能力是不同的,当今大多数人是通过「向外」看来找寻智慧。 但是佛教的这种观和止的禅修都是向内看的。

A lot of people think that Buddhism is a type of philosophy, like modern scientific philosophy. But it is a little bit different. In Buddhist meditation we are investigating our own nature, the workings of our own body and mind. In brief, it is the best to alternate the practice of these two, analytic meditation and resting meditation.
很多人认为佛教是一种哲学,就像现代的科学哲学。 但是它们还是有些不同。 佛教的禅修,我们要观测的是自己的佛性,以及自己身体和心智的活动。 简要来说,最好的情况就是这两种禅修——「观」和「止」的禅修交替修持。

We need both, because, of course, we need to develop wisdom, but we cannot develop wisdom without peace of mind. If the mind is agitated, wisdom cannot develop. So, in addition to analytical meditation, we also need resting meditation. It is important to practice these in alternation.
这两者对我们来说都是必不可少的。 我们当然需要开启智慧,但是,一颗不平静的心也无法让智慧开显。 如果心躁动不安,智慧也无法开启。 因此,除了观的修持,止的禅修也是必须的。重要的是两种方式要相辅相成的练习。

So I ask everyone to please practice in this way. And it seems that that is enough for today. That’s why I think I already talked enough but actually that is maybe it's just a little bit of my thoughts, because today it is kind of test, a little bit of a test.
因此,我希望每个人都能这么去做。我感觉这两种方法于当今的人们来说也就足够了。 这也是为何我觉得我已经讲的够了。 然而事实上,或许这只是我一些想法而已,因为今天只是一个测试,一个小测试。

In the future, if this one is going well, maybe in the future we will do more of this kind of live webcasting, so that many people can listen to - you can say, to my teaching or my thought.
日后,如果这样进行的好的话,或许我们会有更多的这种在线的网络教学,这样很多人就可以听到了。 于是那时你可以说,来听我的教授和想法。

I think it’s very wonderful to have this kind of communication. This kind of communication was not possible before. Even when I was a child, we didn’t have this kind of communication. Now everything’s changing, Technology is very fast. That’s why we have this kind of communication,this very sort of advanced technology. That’s why I think we can have this kind of communication. It’s very wonderful,and I want to say thank you so very much to all of you.
我认为能够这样沟通是很棒的,在以前这种沟通是不可能的。在我小的时候,我们没有这类的交流工具。 如今每一件事物都在变化着,科技也在快速的发展,正是先进的科技让我们有了今天这样的沟通。 这也是为何我认为这类的在线教学是可行的,这真的是很赞叹的一件事! 最后,我想说:“非常感谢所有人!”